Terms of Reference: The Economic Burden of Violence Against Children in South Africa

Save the Children South Africa
Please note: this opportunity closing date has passed and may not be available any more.
Opportunity closing date: 
Friday, 20 November, 2015
Opportunity type: 
The Economic Burden of Violence Against Children in South Africa


Title: The economic burden of violence against children in South Africa
Start Date: Upon signing of the contract
End Date: April 4, 2016
Closing date for proposals: Close of business on Friday November 20, 2015

1. Background

In 2014, the Human and Social Services department of KPMG undertook an analysis to estimate the cost of gender-based violence in South Africa[1]. Based on a conservative approach, violence against women was estimated to cost South Africa between R28.4 billion to R42.4 billion for the year of 2012/2013, this represents 0.9% to 1.3% of the GDP. These estimates included:

  1. Costs to victims (consumption costs, loss of earnings, and costs associated with morbidity and mortality)
  2. Costs to government (costs of providing related services, medical and after-care services, and specific police and judicial services)
  3. Costs to civil society organisations (costs of services such as shelters, counseling, and support)
  4. Costs to business (opportunity costs to businesses due to absenteeism and recruitment costs, reduced productivity due to depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and distraction)

These costs are likely underestimated as they do not take into account numerous factors such as costs to the second generation (in Australia, the cost attributed to children witnessing violence represents 10% of the total cost of violence1), pain and suffering, lost tax revenues, etc.
Given that violence against children begins early on in life and often persists through development, one can imagine that the cumulative costs associated with violence against children are likely to be exponentially higher. Although figures on costs linked to child abuse in South Africa are currently not available, estimates from the US serve as a useful nexus.  The average lifetime cost per victim of nonfatal child maltreatment was estimated to be $210 012 USD in 2010 dollars; whereas the estimated average lifetime cost per death is $1 272 900 USD, of that 99% (ie. $1 258 800 USD) is due to productivity losses. Together, the total lifetime economic burden resulting from new cases of fatal and nonfatal child maltreatment in the US in 2008 alone was estimated to sum to approximately $124 billion USD[2].
In 2013, Mathews et al. examined the epidemiology of child homicides in South Africa[3]. Based on data collected from mortuaries in 2009, the study reported that South Africa’s estimated child homicide rate of 5.5 homicides per 100 000 children younger than 18 years is more than twice the global estimate[4], which was 2.5 per 100 000. Moreover, the study estimates that nearly half of all child homicides in South Africa were related to child abuse and neglect.  
Violence against children is written into South African laws and policies, such as the focus on prevention and early intervention in the Children’s Amendment Act[5], and government actions have included, for instance, the establishment of a Cabinet-level Inter-Ministerial Committee (IMC) on Violence to address violence against women and children in South Africa and proposed an Integrated Programme of Action on Violence Against Women and Children (2013-2018)[6]. In a law review commissioned by Save the Children, it was found that despite these efforts, implementation remains poor with one of the main challenges being insufficiency of financial resources[7].

2. Purpose and Objectives   

It is against this backdrop that Save the Children South Africa (SCSA) aims to appoint a consultant to estimate the economic burden of violence against children in South Africa. This information will be critical in ensuring the necessary financial resources are invested in the development and execution of a clear implementation plan, which will require well-coordinated collaboration between researchers, government, and non-governmental organisations.
The objectives of the cost of inaction analyses are:

  1. To estimate the average lifetime cost per victim of new cases of nonfatal forms of violence against children in 2015;
  2. To estimate average lifetime cost per death in 2015;
  3. To estimate the total lifetime economic burden resulting from new cases of fatal and nonfatal forms of violence against children in South Africa for 2015.

3. Scope of Work
The scope of the consultancy will include (but not limited to):

  1. Draft, finalize and submit inception meeting report which will be held to discuss and finalize, amongst others, a detailed work plan, overall approach, and timeline;
  2. Review of key relevant literature (which may include government reports, policy briefs, journal articles, etc.)
  3. Develop approach, determine the main outcome variables to estimate, and identify key factors to include in the analytical model;
  4. Progress report due by no later than December 21, 2015;
  5. Share and consult with key stakeholders at a roundtable discussion to be organized by SCSA on the approach, methodology, main data sources from which to draw from, and sharing of preliminary results;
  6. Conduct cost of inaction analyses which may include ex ante estimations of costs;
  7. Draft, finalize and submit a final report.

4. Expected Required Outputs

  1. A final comprehensive report including an executive summary, details of the process, data, findings of the cost of inaction analyses, how such funds could be re-directed and invested elsewhere in SA to promote the well-being and development of South African children;
  2. A 5 page summary of key findings;
  3. Provide support in one dissemination activity in the months following the end date of the agreement.

5. Project Management
The Consultant, or team of consultants, is responsible for overall management of the project, including designing and conducting the cost estimate analysis, drafting and finalizing the report and debriefing the project team. The Consultant(s) will liaise with Save the Children South Africa throughout the process, providing regular updates on the design and implementation of the research, and seeking their input and advice where necessary. The Consultant(s) will report to the Research Manager of SCSA.
SCSA is responsible for overseeing the Consultant by managing the consultancy contract; monitoring adherence to specified deadlines; facilitating access to required information, resources and contacts (where necessary); and providing feedback on the process (such as which data sources to use, which aspects of VAC to examine, etc.) and report.

6. Required Skills and Experience of the Prospective Consultant
SCSA is looking to appoint an established academic, private or public institution with long-standing record in the field who, at a minimum, possesses the following:

  1. Strong background in economics with at least a Masters’ degree in Economics, Social Sciences, Statistics, or related fields;
  2. Demonstrated experience in conducting relevant work;
  3. Extensive experience and knowledge in the child protection sector;
  4. Good analytical and writing skills;
  5. Work effectively and communicate clearly through email, phone, and in meetings;
  6. Be willing to travel to SCSA’s Pretoria office when needed

7. Duration of the Assignment and Agreement
The draft report should be completed by March 18, 2016 and a final report no later than April 4, 2016. A detailed timeframe will be agreed upon selection of the Consultant(s).
Total assignment amount and payment schedule will be agreed upon during the finalisation of the agreement between SCSA and the successful Consultant. Whilst price will not necessarily be a determining factor in the evaluation of the proposals, cost effectiveness and value for money will be considered.

8. Submission and Evaluation of Proposals
All proposals should be submitted by email to tenders@savethechildren.org.za by close of business on Friday November 20, 2015.. Please ensure that the subject line states “Proposal – Economic burden of VAC in South Africa”. All proposals will be kept confidential, and any proprietary methods, approaches or models will be treated as such, and not shared with any third party, nor utilised by SCSA without prior approval from the respective consultant or team of consultants.
Submissions must include the following:

  1. Proposals (not exceeding 5 pages) and should include the following:
    1. Approach to the work including, but not limited to, examples of sources of data to model from, types of costs included in estimate, breakdown of which aspects of violence against children will be costed (e.g., by age, by gender, by type of violence, etc.), modelling approaches to be followed.
    2. A detailed budget
    3. Names and qualifications of all collaborators to work on the assignment
  2. CV of all collaborators to work on the assignment
  3. At least 2 references with contact details
  4. Sample of a previous costing project

Selection of the Consultant(s) will be based on:

  1. How well the proposal meets the requirements set out in the Terms of Reference
  2. Relevant skills and experience
  3. Value for money

[1] KPMG (2014). Too costly to ignore: The economic impact of gender-based violence in South Africa.
[2] Fang, X., Brown, D.S., Florence, C., & Mercy, J.A. (2010). The economic burden of child maltreatment in the United States and implications for prevention. Child Abuse & Neglect, 36, 156-165.
[3] Mathews, S., Abrahams, N., Jewkes, R., Martin, L.J., & Lombard, C. (2013). The epidemiology of child homicides in South Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 91, 562-568.
[4] Pinheiro, P. (2006). World report on violence against children. Geneva: United Nations.
[5] The Children’s Amendment Act, 2007.
[6] DSD (2014). South African Integrated Programme of Action on Violence Against Women and Children (2013-  2018).
[7] Proudlock, P., Mathews, S., & Jamieson, L. (2014). Children’s right to be protected from violence: A review of South African’s laws and policies. In (Proudlock, P., Ed.) South Africa’s progress in realizing children’s rights: A law review. Cape Town: Children’s Institute, UCT & Save the Children South Africa.

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