politics

politics

  • 50/50 by 2015 Remains an Elusive Dream

    It may have been just a four percentage point drop in women’s representation in parliament in the May 2014 South African elections. But that drop sent tremors across a region hoping to at least show some progress on this front by 2015, the deadline year for the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Protocol on Gender and Development, signed here in 2008.

    On 9 August - Women’s Day in South Africa – it is a sobering thought that we not only let ourselves down by failing to reach gender parity in one key area of decision-making: we took all of SADC down with us.

    South Africa is the most populous nation in the SADC and a torch bearer for gender equality. Half the region’s MPs reside in this country.  Achieving 44 percent women in parliament in the 2009 elections shot South Africa to the top of the chart in SADC and to the global top 10. The drop to 40 percent in May 2014 dealt a crippling blow to the 50/50 campaign.

    With less than one year to go until 2015, no country in the 15-nation region has reached the 50 percent target of women’s representation in parliament, cabinet or local government. Over the six years, women’s overall representation in parliament hit its highest at 26 percent in 2014, increasing by two percentage points from 24 percent in 2013.

    However, best predictions in the 2014 Southern African Gender Protocol Barometer  are that even with five more elections by the end of 2015, this figure will at most rise to 29 percent, meaning SADC will not have achieved the original 30 percent let alone 50 percent target by 2015. Women’s representation in local government slid from 26 percent to 24 percent in the last year, and may just claw back to 28 percent by the end of 2015, but will also fall shy of both the 30 percent and 50 percent targets.

    During the 2014 SADC Protocol@Work summits, the Southern African Gender Protocol Alliance held working meetings on the 50/50 campaign and came up with country-specific strategies. The strong message that emerged from these consultations is that without specific measures - quotas and electoral systems - to increase women’s political representation, change will remain painfully slow.

    The 2014 Barometer reflects the global reality that women’s political representation is highest in Proportional Representation (PR) electoral systems (38 percent in parliament and 37 percent in local government) and in countries with quotas (38 percent in parliament and 37 percent in local government). Countries with First Past the Post Systems (17 percent women in national and 14 percent women in local) have the lowest level of women’s representation, as do countries with no quota (17 percent national and eight percent local).

    However, SADC countries with the First-Past-the-Post (FPTP) system have shown innovation over the last few years by following the Tanzania example of adopting to a mixed system, with women able to run for the openly contested seats, and be awarded an additional 30 percent of seats on a proportional representation basis in accordance with the strength of each party.

    The Zimbabwe elections in July 2013 provided a stark example of the possibilities and pitfalls of gender and election strategies. Zimbabwe witnessed an increase of 22 percentage points in women’s representation in parliament from 16 percent to 38 percent thanks to the constitutional quota that created a mixed system and guaranteed women a minimum of 22 percent of the seats in the National Assembly. However, in the absence of similar provisions for local government the proportion of women in this sphere of governance declined from 18 percent to 16 percent in the same election. 

    In South Africa, the ruling African National Congress (ANC) became the first political party in SADC to adopt a voluntary 50 percent quota (the South West Africa Peoples Organisation in Namibia has since followed suit). The danger of voluntary quotas, long raised by activists, is that they are linked to the electoral fortunes of political parties. This proved to be the case in the South African elections. The decline in women’s political participation in the May elections is directly attributable to the decline in the ANC’s proportion of the vote, from 66 percent in the last election to 62 percent in the 2014 elections.

    Malawi had a spirited 50/50 campaign but no constitutional or legislated quotas in FPTP system. The elections took place at a turbulent time, marred by charges of foul play. As often happens in such circumstances – and despite an incumbent woman president contesting the elections - the proportion of women dropped significantly to 17 percent from 22 percent. For a moment too brief, the SADC regions marvelled and celebrated the first female President, Joyce Banda, former president of Malawi. She lost to Peter Mutharika (brother to the late former leader, Bingu Mutharika) during the May 2014 elections.

    With 44 percent women in parliament, Seychelles has come closest to achieving the parity target in this area of political decision-making, while Botswana and the Democratic Republic of Congo (10 percent) are the lowest. Seychelles is unique in that it is the only country in the SADC region to have achieved a high level of women in parliament without a quota, and in FPTP system. The island, which has a long tradition of men leaving in search of work, has a strong matriarchal culture.

    Between August 2014 and the end of 2015, five more SADC countries – Botswana (local and national); Mozambique (national), Namibia (national), Mauritius (national) and Tanzania (national and local) are due to hold elections. Madagascar’s long overdue local elections may also take place during this period.  With primaries already past in Botswana, there is a danger of further backslide in the October 2014 elections. Mozambique (39 percent) and Tanzania (36 percent) already have a high representation of women in parliament. Mozambique has a proportional representation system and the ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frelimo) has a voluntary quota. Tanzania has a Constitutional quota, and this is being raised from 30 percent to 50 percent. Gains are likely in both countries.

    There are moves afoot in Namibia to legislate escalate the legislated quota at local level to national level, but it is not clear if this will happen in time for the October 2014 elections. Mauritius is debating a White Paper on Electoral reform that is likely to result in the quota at local level being escalated to national level but not in time for the 2015 national elections. It is therefore likely that only modest gains will be registered in both countries.

    Detailed projections in the Barometer lead to the unavoidable conclusion that by the end of 2015, the region will not make even the 30 percent mark. This should however give impetus to a much more strategic approach to the 50/50 campaign, with emphasis on electoral systems and quotas, accompanied by strong advocacy campaigns, rather than simply training women for political office.

    - Colleen Lowe Morna is Chief Executive Officer of Gender Links and editor-in-chief of the Southern African Gender Barometer. She formerly served as Chief Programme Officer of the Commonwealth Observer Mission to South Africa in the run up to the 1994 elections. This article is part of the Gender Links News Service special series on Women’s Month.
    Author(s): 
    Colleen Lowe Morna
  • NGOs Urged to Shun Meddling in Politics

    Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have been challenged to stick to their core business of being vehicles of development and shun meddling in politics.

    The Minister of State for Provincial Affairs in Manicaland Province, Chris Mushohwe, says that NGOs should not engage in politics but rather partner the government and become instruments for development.

    Mushohwe was speaking at the commissioning of a classroom block in Chindoti village that was renovated by Plan Zimbabwe.

    To read the article titled, “NGOs urged to shun meddling in politics,” click here.

    Source: 
    Bulawayo 24
  • Call to Abolish Death Penalty

    The United Nations (UN) has called on member states to abolish the death penalty, saying it has no place in the 21st Century.

    Speaking at a special event hosted by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Italian Mission to the UN, secretary-general, Ban Ki-moon, described death penalty as a cruel and inhumane practice.

    “I am particularly troubled by the application of the death penalty for offences that do not meet the threshold under international human rights law of 'most serious crimes', including drug-related offences, consensual sexual acts and apostasy,” he explained.

    He further expressed his concern with legislation in 14 States that permit the death penalty on children as well as the new phenomenon of sentencing large groups of individuals to death in mass trials.

    To read the article titled, “UN Chief calls for death penalty abolition,” click here.

    Source: 
    SABC News
  • SANEF Slams Egypt Over Journos Case

    The South African National Editors' Forum (SANEF) expressed shock at the conviction and sentencing of three Al Jazeera journalists in Egypt.

    In a press statement, SANEF points out that, "What started off as the dawn of the Arab Spring has turned into a nightmare where freedoms of Egyptian people are treated with disdain by the ruling military-aligned government."

    SANEF, which is part of the African Editors' Forum, is calling on the African Union Commission to ensure that the summit condemned the sentencing of the journalists.

    To read the article titled, “Arab Spring has turned into nightmare – SANEF,” click here.

    Source: 
    News 24
  • Media Urged to Report the ‘Good’ and ‘Bad’

    Deputy President, Cyril Ramaphosa, says the media has a responsibility to report on progress as well as government’s failures.

    Ramaphosa told the South African National Editor’s Forum (SANEF) to tell the stories that are good and also those that are difficult, painful and troublesome.

    Ramaphosa called on the media to give expression to the struggles and successes of ordinary South Africans and the effects of government policies on their lives.

    To read the article titled, “Report on the good and the bad – Ramaphosa,” click here.

    Source: 
    The Citizen
  • Makhura to Tackle Development Challenges in GP

    Newly-appointed Gauteng Premier, David Makhura, has undertaken to urgently return to communities that embarked on service delivery protests in the run-up to the elections with a plan to address their development challenges.
     
    In his acceptance speech in the provincial legislature after being elected Gauteng premier for the next five years, Makhura thanked the previous Gauteng government under the leadership of Nomvula Mokonyane, for their hard work and promised to build on it.
     
    “Gauteng remains the fourth's largest economy on the continent. As ANC [African National Congress] government, we will improve our plans to ensure that we surpass the contribution of our province to the national economy. We will put greater effort in putting a growing and inclusive economy as we said during the elections.”
     
    To read the article titled, “Makhura to address development challenges in hostile communities,” click here.

    Source: 
    SABC News
  • Malawi Development Bank to Revamp the Economy

    Malawi’s ruling party, the People's Party (PP), has disclosed plans to establish a Malawi Development Bank with loan access at low interest rates in an effort to reduce poverty through sound economic management and governance.
     
    In its manifesto, "The PP recognises that economic management and good governance are central to a transformational poverty reduction agenda.”
     
    However, it points out that the main challenge of maintaining macro-economic stability is that Malawi faces significant internal and external imbalances.
     
    To read the article titled, “Malawi Development Bank to revamp the economy,” click here.

    Source: 
    All Africa
  • SAPS Appeals Ruling in the Zim Torture Case

    Several international law experts describe the decision by the South African Police Service (SAPS) not to investigate the torture of opposition activists in the run-up to the 2008 elections in Zimbabwe as ‘irrational and unreasonable’.
     
    Professor John Dugard, former United Nations special rapporteur on human rights in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, University of London criminal law professor Kevin Heller, Stellenbosch University law professor Gerhard Kemp and University of Cape Town international law lecturer, Dr Hannah Woolaver, have joined the case as amici curiae (friends of the court).
     
    Meanwhile, police commissioner General Riah Phiyega is appealing against the Supreme Court of Appeal’s 2013 judgment declaring that the SAPS is empowered to investigate the alleged offences irrespective of whether or not the alleged perpetrators are present in South Africa.
     
    To read the article titled, “SAPS appeals ruling on Zim torture claims,” click here.

    Source: 
    IOL News
  • Voters Can Wear Anything on 7 May

    The Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) says voters are allowed to go to voting stations donning political party-branded regalia.

    Speaking from the national results operations centre in Pretoria, IEC chairperson, Pansy Tlakula, pointed out that, "We have heard in the past that voters are not allowed to wear T-shirts of their political parties. The law doesn't say that."

    She explains: "Voters can wear anything. Imagine if a voter turns up with a T-shirt of a political party then we say to them 'go back and dress properly'. How many would we turn back?"

    To read the article titled, “Wear what you want for vote – Tlakula,” click here.

    Source: 
    News 24
  • IEC Expects 70 Percent Voter Turnout

    The Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) chairperson, Pansy Tlakula, says they are expecting a 70 percent voter turnout on 7 May 2014.

    Tlakula cast her vote at the Orange Grove Primary School in Sydenham, Johannesburg, on 5 May 2014, where she told the media that the IEC is ready for the and that it is all systems go.

    Tlakula says polling stations are open for special votes countrywide from 5-6 May 2014 and that home visits are also being conducted.

    To read the article titled, “It's all systems go for the 2014 elections: Tlakula,” click here.

    Source: 
    SABC News
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