- Sixth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and DevelopmentOpportunity closing date:Friday, June 28, 2013Opportunity type:Call for proposals
Days 1 (December 7th) and 4 (December 10th) of the conference are dedicated to open sessions. We invite you to contribute to this lively, informal, and interactive component of the ICTD conference. Successful proposals will work towards the conferences goals of (1) accessibility and inclusion (2) participation and dialogue and (3) excellence.
The conference will be hosted for the first time on the African continent. We especially encourage open sessions with a regional focus exploring unique ICTD needs and opportunities in Africa. Though the language of the main conference is English, we also encourage open session proposals held in other languages widely spoken on the continent including (though not necessarily limited to) French, Portuguese, and Swahili.
The aim of the open sessions is to bring as diverse a group of people as possible together who share an interest in the ICTD space. However, the proposal review process is also competitive as there is limited time and space to hold these sessions. Proposals will be judged on the following criteria:
- accessibility and inclusiveness – proposals should reflect an effort to reach an interdisciplinary ICTD crowd maximizing the diversity of topics covered and voices heard at the conference
- participation and dialogue – open sessions should aim to have a greater element of participation than the full paper and notes tracks, or the demo sessions. We will look for proposals that demonstrate some way of engaging those who join the session in conversation, activities, or training.
- excellence – we will look for expertise and knowledge among organizers proposing workshops and training sessions where they seek to impart skills to others. The organization of an open session may also demonstrate excellence if its thoughtfully put together, even if the organizers do not themselves have deep expertise in the proposed topic or subject matter.
- workshops that include highly interactive, hands-on training for participants
- panels or roundtables: i.e. on particular areas of theory; definition work (what is development? What is technology? Ethics in ICTD); emergent new approaches in ICTD; reflections on the state of the field; and efforts to chart a future course for ICTD research and practice.
- conversations about methods and proposals for methodological innovation
- special interest groups (SIGs); presentation of projects by participants from diverse institutions on a common theme (i.e. climate change, gender, or regional)
- many other formal and informal formats including debates, live performances, video screenings, fishbowls, and wildcard sessions. (Note: demos should be submitted to the demo track)
While organizers may extend a special invitation to particular participants to attend or present, the sessions themselves must be open to any conference attendee who wishes to join on the day of (up to room capacity).
To propose an open session please fill out the proposal form providing a 50-word summary and an additional 2-page elaboration of your proposed open session topic with details requested in the proposal form.
Submit the completed proposal to firstname.lastname@example.org by the deadline of 28 June 2013.
For more information about ICTD 2013, refer to http://ictd.cs.uct.ac.za/index.html.
To view other opportunities, visit www.ngopulse.org/group/home-page/other-opportunities.
- Mindset NetworkPlease note: this opportunity closing date has passed and may not be available any more.Opportunity closing date:Monday, April 8, 2013Opportunity type:Employment
Mindset seeks to appoint a Content Administrator, based in Johannesburg.
The person will assist the Learn Content Development Team with day to day administrative tasks as noted in the detailed job description below.
- Assist with generic, routine procurement processes (documentation, sending, receiving, collating, replying) under the guidance of the Classroom Resources and Learn Xtra Managers and the Schooling Executive and with support from the Content Developers;
- Assist with maintaining weekly and other ongoing records, and supporting the rest of the team with on-going communication, written and verbal, where required. Updating the Learn Content List on a regular basis managing documents in Classroom Resources and Learn Xtra – there are large volumes of documents coming into Classroom Resources and Learn Xtra, going out to reviewers and developers, as well as various versions that need control and management, as well as backup Carrying out weekly or more frequent follow up with service providers when required to assist Content Developers and Content Managers;
- Manage resources upon completion, including upload to the website, applying descriptions and keywords, tagging, etc. as required;
- Manage the display of resources on the Learn website and Youtube Channel as required. Manage the editable areas of the website, under the guidance of the Content Managers Preparing the final PDF uploadable versions of print notes for all CAPS series, including aligning the print note to a standard template and carrying out a basic edit and monitoring the inclusion of acknowledgements in print notes monitoring the state of edit reviews, corrections and sign offs of all CAPS seriesp;
- Upload, if possible, individual IT resources (the simulations currently built into IMM resources) to the website;
- Process all invoices and orders for the programmes and their various projects and activities Tracking the payment of all processed invoices on a weekly basis and proactively informing the relevant members of the programme teams as to payments made and delays;
- Maintain a database of all programme expenditure and performing monthly reconciliations of this expenditure against management accounts raising queries with the Programme Executives as required;
- Create and maintain a detailed Learn and Health contacts database including name, email address, contact numbers, company and position.
Please quote the source of this advertisement in your application - NGO Pulse Portal.
Only shortlisted candidates will be contacted.
For more about Mindset Network, refer to www.mindset.co.za.
For other vacancies in the NGO sector, refer to www.ngopulse.org/vacancies.
Want to reach the widest spectrum of NGO and development stakeholders in South Africa as part of your communication and outreach objectives? Learn more about how the NGO Pulse Premium Advertising Service can support your communication requirements. Visit http://goo.gl/MUCvL for more information.
- Mindset Network (NPC)Please note: this opportunity closing date has passed and may not be available any more.Opportunity closing date:Tuesday, April 2, 2013Opportunity type:Employment
Mindset seeks to appoint a Procurement Administrator, based in Johannesburg.
The person will facilitate all procurement requests for Mindset and its group companies as detailed in the job specification below.
- In collaboration with Management, ensure that there is general awareness of the Procurement policy and procedures amongst staff;
- Identify potential suppliers for all necessary services (as required from time to time) in line with Mindset’s Procurement Policy;
- Developing and maintaining an approved supplier database in line with Mindset requirements (including BEE credentials);
- Ensures that a comprehensive set of documentation (ie, BEE certificate, tax clearance, supplier information sheet, company registration details, Vat registration certificate, banking details) is maintained for each supplier as appropriate.
- Registers all requisitions (for services required) made by line departments as per briefs for quotations and/or proposals as and when required.
- Drafts requests for quotations (and proposals) and identifies possible suppliers from database.
- Fax/email requests for quotations to identified suppliers.
- Receiving quotations/proposals from identified suppliers and recording this onto the supplier justification form which is to be signed off by the Procurement Committee and the respective line manager once approved.
- Negotiating with (potential) vendors/suppliers to get the best possible rates/service(s).
- Evaluates quotations in consultation with client department and/or Procurement Committee as constituted from time to time i.e. Value analysis.
- Developing and maintaining relationships with recognized suppliers and performance management thereof.
- Keeps a record (electronic and hard copy, as agreed) of all quotes, justification forms, minutes of meetings and signed service agreements and contracts (ie. All relevant documentation).
- Preparation of documents for BEE Ratings for the Mindset Group
- Completion of credit applications and Preferred Supplier applications
- General administrative assistance within the Finance Department
- Evaluates specifications/criteria for all tender requests in consultation with the client department.
- Drafts final specification in consultation with the client department.
- In conjunction with the client department, prepares tender documents and arranges for tender advertisements to be placed in the mass media and/or other appropriate advertising platforms;
- Send RFP (request for proposal) to external suppliers.
- Facilitates tender process and deals with all enquiries.
- In line with the Policy, determines best approaches to invite targeted companies to tender.
- Records (including acknowledgements of receipt) and checks tender documents.
- Schedule all procurement committee and bid adjudication meetings.
- Convenes tender evaluation committee meetings.
- Transcription, distribution and maintenance of minutes for all procurement meetings held.
- Notifies all parties of outcome of tender process.
- In conjunction with the Corporate Affairs Manager, ensures contracts and service agreements signed with successful bidders.
- Updates tender register and prepares Tender report.
- Ensures that the execution of all tender contracts is monitored.
Please quote the source of this advertisement in your application - NGO Pulse Portal.
Only shortlisted candidates will be contacted.
For more about Mindset Network, refer to www.mindset.co.za.
For other vacancies in the NGO sector, refer to www.ngopulse.org/vacancies..
Follow news, information and updates from SANGONeT and NGO Pulse on Facebook at http://mzan.si/AAzs.
Ten years and R3 billion later, and Gauteng Online, the biggest school computer project in the country, has effectively been cancelled - with the Gauteng government owning no equipment to show for it.
This month, MEC for Finance, Mandla Nkomfe, announced that the project, which is under what he calls the ‘strategic review’, was cancelled and the project will be incorporated into a Gauteng Broadband Network, whose full scope will be announced in two weeks’ time.
Nkomfe denied the tender had been cancelled as a result of unfair competitive practice allegations, with tender specifications giving an advantage to the current supplier, SMMT Online (now known as CloudSeed).
To read the article titled, “R3bn 'wasted' on Gauteng Online,” click here.Source:News24
MTN chief executive officer, Karel Pienaar, says that a solid policy framework for information communication technology (ICT) is critical for a knowledge economy to be established in Africa.
Speaking at the inaugural ICT Indaba this week, Pienaar explained that a comprehensive policy environment is a critical success factor if Africa is to embrace the impact the knowledge economy can have on job creation and economic development.
He noted that Africa has the fastest-growing telecommunications sector in the world, thanks mainly to the adoption of mobile technology.
Top read the article titled, “African knowledge economy needs ICT policy,” click here.Source:IT Web
The South African Depression and Anxiety Group (SADAG), Africa’s largest mental health support and advocacy organisation, made a presentation on the topic, ‘Rural Health Education Using an Audio Visual Technology’, earlier this week at the SANGONeT ICT4RD Conference in Johannesburg.
Health education and promotion are hampered by challenges related to low levels of literacy and lack of trained professional health personnel and community workers. Illiteracy is a health threatening issue. Poverty is almost always equated with isolation in many places. Poverty results from the lack of access to emergency health services which are often far-fetched and under-resourced.
Global illiteracy threatens nearly 900 million adults; two out of three of them are women. Illiteracy levels are concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab States and in East Asia. The literacy levels in Sub-Saharan Africa are just over 60 percent. The consequences of illiteracy impact negatively on communities.
Vulnerable and disadvantaged communities are more likely to confuse the medication regimen, not able to understand medical procedures, fail to navigate the health system and most likely to stop their treatments prematurely, thereby raising challenges in treatment and compliance.
It must be noted that in Sub-Saharan Africa 64 percent of people live in rural areas, 50 percent work in the agricultural sector and 73 percent of these are smallholder farmers.
The use of traditional pamphlets and brochures has proved ineffective for rural communities with low levels of literacy. SADAG has over the last six years developed and distributed an innovative health education and communication tool - a speaking book for these rural communities.
The ‘Speaking Books’ are audiovisual books with a sound box that has 16 key messages. The voice is triggered by simply pressing one of these 16 key messages. Each message plays for 30 seconds and the whole book plays for less than eight minutes. The book has an on and off switch.
The ‘Speaking Books’ are user friendly, can be played at leisure, in privacy and the messages can be seen and heard. Research has shown that each book reaches up to 27 people.
The organisation has produced over 54 titles on health and social development topics ranging from HIV and AIDS, TB, malaria, hypertension, maternal health, clinical trials, vaccines, the use of safe medicines, understanding your mental health, to getting government grants. The Department of Social Development is producing this particular book for disadvantaged communities in local languages.
Other country specific requirements have included such languages as Portuguese, Kiswahili, French, Comorian languages, Amharic (Ethiopia), Spanish and Mandarin.
The Speaking Books are supported and funded by donors and distributed to rural communities free of charge. The books have been endorsed by governments, international organisations, CDC, John Hopkins Centre of Communications, Acumen Fund, USAID and UNICEF.
- Elizabeth Matarem is the CEO of the South African Depression and Anxiety Group.
For more about the South African Depression and Anxiety Group, refer to www.sadag.org.za.
For more information about the ‘Speaking Books’, refer to www.booksofhope.com.
A Business Software Alliance (BSA) survey shows that almost half of personal computer users around the world get their software illegally, with China's massive market the worst culprit.
In its new survey, BSA found that 47 percent of personal computer users globally believe there is nothing wrong with using unauthorised copies of software programmes.
The survey of 15 000 personal computer users in 32 countries found that Chinese users have the most relaxed attitude to piracy.
To read the article titled, “Half of world's computers use pirated software,” click here.Source:Times Live
- Electronic waste, or e-waste, consists of obsolete electrical and electronic equipment (EEE). Obsolete EEE includes computers, televisions, mobile phones, printers and white electronic goods, such as refrigerators. Although China and India were the traditional ‘dumping grounds’ for such discarded global e-waste, since 2005 several studies have exposed illegal exporting of e-waste from developed countries to African countries, and predominantly, Nigeria and Ghana. Additional levels of domestically produced e-waste are rising across Africa as well, a result of increased electronic goods consumption stemming from, among other factors, growing rates of disposable incomes.
E-waste presents serious environmental and health challenges for the countries left dealing with it, due to both its volume and toxicity.2 To date, global regional and national policy and regulatory responses have predominantly focused on banning trans-boundary shipments of e-waste. These responses have been weakly enforced, and have been largely ineffective in both the sending and receiving countries. Alternative solutions include recycling technology transfer and increased manufacturer responsibility, although neither has been significantly effective to date. The current potential for environmental and health risks associated with e-waste to rise across Africa is high, and thus presents a serious challenge.
A rising global problem
While the ‘digital age’ has brought about many advantages, rising consumption of EEE coupled with increasingly rapid obsolescence (due to sustained technological advances), and decreasing product lifetimes3 has led to significant increases in global e-waste levels. The latest available United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) estimate on the level of e-waste produced globally is forty million tons per year.4 This growing problem is compounded by low recycling rates, and illegal trans-boundary movement from developed to developing countries.5 Simultaneously, there is a significant increase in demand for EEE from within developing countries, thus further contributing to future potential increases in e-waste levels.
Growth of EEE in Africa
Individual demand for EEE is rising at significant rates across Africa, driven primarily by growing disposable incomes. Looking at Tanzania for instance, World Bank data shows that over the last decade personal computer penetration rates has risen ten-fold, while the number of people who own a mobile phone has increased by a factor of 100. Furthermore, baseline reports commissioned by the Sustainable E-waste Project (StEP), a UN initiative that facilitates approaches to the e-waste problem, show that EEE markets remain unsaturated (especially for information and communication technology (ICT) products) across the majority of the countries surveyed,6 indicating further future rises in EEE penetration across the continent.
From EEE to e-waste
Despite this increasing demand for, and penetration rates of, EEE across the continent, many people are unable to afford new devices. Resulting demand for cheaper second-hand EEE, coupled with low labour costs for reparation and refurbishment, has led to a strong electronic re-use market in developing countries, and is clearly strong across Africa7. This in turn leads to a higher domestic e-waste generation per year, due to the reduced lifespan of second-hand EEE.8
Part of the demand for second-hand EEE is met by discarded equipment from government agencies and companies. In Senegal, for example, this source stream of EEE was found to contribute to 10 percent of the stock of second-hand ICT equipment in the country in 2008.9 Much of the remaining demand for second-hand EEE in Africa is met by imports from developed countries. However, estimates from Greenpeace in 2008 indicated that between 25 and 75 percent of second-hand EEE imported into Africa arrived in an unusable condition, beyond repair.10
Illegal transboundary shipments of e-waste
While there is demand for used EEE within African countries, there is no demand for non-functional or near end-of-life products.11 Furthermore, although re-usable second-hand EEE exports are legal, exports of e-waste are not, under international legislation12 and regional legislation.13 However, transboundary shipments of e-waste occur due to costly environmental and social standards for e-waste recycling in, for example, Europe, the United States and Japan.14 These illegal shipments are effectively liberating developed countries of the e-waste problem,15 at the expense of the receivers – the developing world.
When the problem of this so called e-waste ‘dumping’ began to gain attention, it was China and India who were the main receivers.16 From 2005, studies started to find that such shipments were being exported beyond Asia to some African countries,17 with high volumes received by Ghana and Nigeria in particular.18 The scale of these illegal transboundary shipments of e-waste is growing; estimates from 2010 indicate that 40 percent of e-waste from Europe alone is being exported to Asia and Africa.19 In Nigeria, for example, estimates of the number of computer imports found to be non-functioning range from 75 to 95 percent of each shipment.20
Informal e-waste recycling
The non-functioning computers that arrive into Nigeria are sold as scrap, smashed up and burned,21 common practice within e-waste receiving countries, which often lack capacity in handling and recycling of the hazardous materials within the e-waste.22 Instead, manual dismantling, open burning to recover materials, and open dumping of residual fractions occurs.23 In China and India this is predominantly carried out by a large organised informal e-waste recycling sector, whereas in African countries (with the exception of South Africa where a formal e-waste recycling industry has evolved)24 these actions are carried out by individuals.25 In China, plastics, cathode ray tubes (CRTs), and precious metals contained within the e-waste are recovered and re-sold or re-exported. However, in Nigeria and Ghana, it was found that only copper, aluminium and steel were recovered from e-waste.26 Resultantly, relatively more hazardous material is introduced into informal e-waste burning and dumping grounds across Africa, with higher implications for the environment and human health concerns.
Environmental Dangers and Health Concerns
E-waste can contain more than one thousand different substances, many of which are toxic.27 These can comprise heavy metals, for example mercury, lead, cadmium, and chromium, and flame retardants, including polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).28 The most hazardous components of e-waste are the mercury-containing components, batteries, printed circuit boards, CRTs, and the plastics which contain the brominated flame retardants.29 Leaching and evaporation of these substances occurs at the e-waste sites,30 and results in the contamination of surrounding natural resources including, soils, crops, drinking water, livestock and fish.31 Research at Agbogbloshie metal scrap yard in Accra, Ghana revealed lead, copper, zinc and tin in soil samples at rates 100 times greater than normal.32 When the e-waste is burnt, further toxic substances can be inadvertently generated.33
In addition to the environmental concerns, the hazardous materials found in e-waste pose a significant risk to human health. Mike Anana, from the League of Environmental Journalist in Ghana, explains, “…the people that break open these monitors tell me that they suffer from nausea, headaches and respiratory problems…”.34 However, it is not only the people working directly with e-waste who are being affected, but also the people living in the environs of the dumps, and those indirectly affected through resulting contamination of the food chain, soils and rivers. These people become exposed to the hazardous substances through dermal exposure, dietary intake, inhalation and dust ingestion, with the latter two sources found to be particularly significant.35 Chemicals found in the 2008 Greenpeace study in Ghana are known to interfere with sexual reproduction and promote cancer.36 A 2010 study in Ghana37 has attributed unexpectedly high levels of PCBs and PBDEs in human breast milk to obsolete electronic equipment and e-waste recycling, and elevated blood levels of lead and Cadium have been found in children living around the e-waste sites.
While African governments are increasingly aware of the problem of e-waste, many have not domesticated the Basel and Bamako conventions into national law.38 However, the 2006 Nairobi Declaration on e-waste, marked an important milestone, and was followed by the 2008 Durban Declaration on e-waste Management in Africa, which stated that every country requires its own process to define their responses and formulate actions in relation to the growing e-waste problem.39
Several African countries are in the process of drawing up policies regarding EEE; some are focusing on the age of imported EEE, for example Ghana is considering a ban on EEE that is older than five years, while Uganda has banned second-hand EEE from entering the country.40 Nevertheless, global, regional and national policies centring on banning or regulating imports, or practices such as open burning have so far been weakly enforced, and have not enabled effective and significant management of e-waste treatment.41 In addition, custom tariffs do not differentiate between used or non-functional EEE, from new EEE, which complicates the process of blocking or controlling the illegal import of e-waste.42
Instead of bans on imports and on informal e-waste recycling practices, it has been suggested that both should be more efficiently controlled, and that it is especially paramount to include the informal sector within decisions and resulting actions.43 This sentiment was strongly echoed in February 2011, during the Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA) E-waste Summit. One of the recommendations from the summit concluded that e-waste imports should not be banned but controlled, as they provide opportunities for employment, poverty alleviation, business with recycling, and the bridge of the digital divide.44
The environmental and health risks associated with informal e-waste practices within Africa and other developing countries could potentially be reduced significantly through the use of improved treatment methods.45 For example, in specific relation to computer e-waste, modern recycling plants can recover or re-use 95% of the material, leaving only 5% as waste.46 As some of these recovered materials from computers and other EEE are scarce precious metals (such as gold), with increasingly high demand, this could also provide revenue generation. Conversely, such measures to increase the revenues from the recycling of e-waste and recovery of materials may inadvertently stimulate e-waste imports.47
Installing modern technology in African countries with high e-waste volumes could be one solution to the problem. This initiative is also one of increasing importance, considering that domestically generated e-waste in developing regions, including Africa, is expected to exceed that of developed regions within five to eight years.48 On the other hand, the process of (recycling) technology transfer to solve the e-waste problem in China was a failure, suggesting that a more holistic approach is needed.49 The question of who should bear the responsibility and the cost of installation of effective recycling technology would also have to be raised, if this solution was adopted within African countries.
Another potential solution involves EEE manufacturers taking more responsibility. Firstly to reduce the levels of hazardous and toxic substances used to make EEE, and secondly for the entire life-cycle of their products, including when they become obsolete.50 While some ‘producer take-back schemes’ are in existence in developed countries, they are not yet of significant scale, and there is no evidence of such schemes within African countries. While manufacturers decide if, and how, they will bear more responsibility and respond to this challenge, the problem of EEE currently in production and circulation remains. For their own part, consumers of EEE must begin to bear some responsibility as well.
At the root of the global e-waste problem is the fact that EEE manufacturers are producing increasing volumes of products with high levels of hazardous and toxic substances, with increasingly short life spans. This is compounded by resource-intense production methods, and complicated, costly and hazardous disassembly. Both illegal transboundary shipments of e-waste to Africa and domestically produced e-waste across the continent are predicted to rise in the near future. In the absence of more effective multi-faceted e-waste policies to respond to this growing problem, it is likely that informal e-waste recycling practices will become more prolific,51 increasing the associated environmental and health risks. While progress is being made in terms of awareness, significant challenges lie ahead.
- Sarah Marriott, Consultancy Africa Intelligence’s Enviro Africa Unit.
The August 2011 edition of the CAI Enviro Africa Issues Newsletter is republished here with permission from Consultancy Africa Intelligence (CAI), a South African-based research and strategy firm with a focus on social, health, political and economic trends and developments in Africa. For more information, see http://www.consultancyafrica.com or http://www.ngopulse.org/press-release/consultancy-africa-intelligence. Alternatively, click here to take advantage of CAI’s free, no obligation, 1-month trial to the company’s Standard Report Series.
- In addition to topical discussion papers and tailored research services, CAI releases a number of fortnightly and monthly publications, examining the latest developments in Africa, across a wide range of interest areas. Interested parties can click here to take advantage of CAI’s free, no obligation, 1-month trial to any/all of the CAI publications.
For more information, see http://www.consultancyafrica.com or http://www.ngopulse.org/press-release/consultancy-africa-intelligence.
(2) Sepúlveda, A., et.al, 2010. A review of the environmental fate and effects of hazardous substances released from electrical and electronic equipments during recycling: Examples from China and India. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 30, p.29.
(3) Yu, J., Williams, E., Ju, M., Yang, Y., 2010. Forecasting Global Generation of Obsolete Personal Computers. Environmental Science& Technology, 44 (9), pp.3232-3237.
(4) StEP 2009. Recycling- from e-waste to resources. United Nations Environment Programme and United Nations University. p.65, http://www.step-initiative.org.
(5) Sepúlveda, A., et. al, 2010. A review of the environmental fate and effects of hazardous substances released from electrical and electronic equipments during recycling: Examples from China and India. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 30, p.29.
(6) Y. Amoyaw-Osei, et.al, Ghana e-waste country assessment. SBC e-waste Africa Project, March 2011. p.xi, http://www.ewasteguide.info.
(7) Yu, J., Williams, E., Ju, M., Yang, Y., 2010. Forecasting Global Generation of Obsolete Personal Computers. Environmental Science& Technology, 44 (9), p.3232
(8) Y. Amoyaw-Osei, Y., at. al, 2011. Ghana e-waste country assessment. SBC e-waste Africa Project, March 2011. p.x, http://www.ewasteguide.info.
(9) S.S., Wone et al., 2008. Senegal: E-waste country assessment, Proceedings of the 19th Waste management Conference of the IWMSA (Wastecon 2008). Durban, South Africa 6-10 October 2008. p.518, http://www.ewasteguide.info.
(10) J. Keper, J., Højsk, N., 2008. Poisoning the poor: Electronic Waste in Ghana. University of Exeter, UK: Ghana Greenpeace Research Laboratories. p.4, http://www.greenpeace.org.
(11) European Union Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environment Law (IMPEL)., 2010. Report on the IMPEL TFS Workshop “Clamping down on illegal waste shipments to Africa”. Accra, Ghana 24-26 November 2009. p.12, http://www.wscep.org.
(12) The United Nations Basel Convention of 1992 and the 2006 Nairobi Declaration on E-waste both prohibit the export of electronic waste
(13) These include the Bamako Convention of 1992, and EU waste shipment legislation.
(14) Sepúlveda, A., et. al, 2010. A review of the environmental fate and effects of hazardous substances released from electrical and electronic equipments during recycling: Examples from China and India. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 30, pp.28-41. p.37.
(15) UNEP, 2005, ‘E-waste, the hidden side of IT equipment’s manufacturing and use’, UNEP Environmental Alert Bulletin, January 2011 p.6, http://www.unep.org.
(16) Basel Action Network, 2002. Exporting harm: the high tech trashing of Asia. 25 February 2002, http://www.ban.org.
(17) Basel Action Network., 2005. The digital dump. Exporting, re-use and abuse to Africa. 24 October 2005,
(18) K. Bridgen, I. Labunska, D. Santillo, P. Johnston,2008. Chemical contamination at e-waste recycling and disposal sites in Accra and Korforidum. University of Exeter, UK; Ghana Greenpeace Research Laboratories. p.4.,http://www.greenpeace.org.
(19) Yu, J., Williams, E., Ju, M., Yang, Y., 2010. Forecasting Global Generation of Obsolete Personal Computers. Environmental Science& Technology, 44 (9), pp.3232-3237. p.3233
(20) European Union Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environment Law (IMPEL) ., 2010. Report on the IMPEL TFS Workshop “Clamping down on illegal waste shipments to Africa”. Accra, Ghana 24-26 November 2009. pp.19-20,http://www.wscep.org.
(21) R. Wray., 2008. Breeding toxins from dead PCs. Guardian London, 6 May, http://www.guardian.co.uk.
(22) CPCT/ Empa, 2011. E-waste assessment Tanzania. UNIDO e-waste initiative for Tanzania, 20 January 2011, p.7,http://www.unido.org
(23) K. Bridgen, I. Labunska, D. Santillo, P. Johnston, 2008. Chemical contamination at e-waste recycling and disposal sites in Accra and Korforidum. University of Exeter, UK; Ghana Greenpeace Research Laboratories. p.4.,http://www.greenpeace.org.
(24) M. Shluep, 2009. E-waste management in Africa- Rising up the Political Agenda. Recycling International, April 2011. p.2, http://www.ewasteguide.info.
(25) Ibid. p.54.
(26) European Union Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environment Law (IMPEL)., 2010. Report on the IMPEL TFS Workshop “Clamping down on illegal waste shipments to Africa”. Accra, Ghana 24-26 November 2009. p.13., http://www.wscep.org.
(27) Sepúlveda, A., et. al , 2010. A review of the environmental fate and effects of hazardous substances released from electrical and electronic equipments during recycling: Examples from China and India. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 30, p.29
(28) UNEP, 2005, ‘E-waste, the hidden side of IT equipment’s manufacturing and use’, UNEP Environmental Alert Bulletin, January 2011 p.5., http://www.unep.org.
(29) Oyuna, Tysdenova., Magnus, Bengtsson., 2011. Chemical hazards associated with treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste Management, 31, p.46.
(30) Ibid. p.56.
(31) Sepúlveda, A. et. al, 2010. A review of the environmental fate and effects of hazardous substances released from electrical and electronic equipments during recycling: Examples from China and India. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 30, p.26.
(32) Öko-Institut, 2010. Socio-economic assessment and feasibility study on sustainable e-waste management in Ghana. August 2010, Öko-Institut, Denmark. p.4, http://www.oeko.de.
(33) StEP 2009. Recycling- from e-waste to resources. United Nations Environment Programme and United Nations University. p.3, http://www.step-initiative.org.
(34) R. Wray., 2008. Breeding toxins from dead PCs. Guardian London, 6 May, http://www.guardian.co.uk.
(35) Tysdenova,O.,Bengtsson, M., 2011. Chemical hazards associated with treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste Management, 31, p.54.
(36) Keper, J., Højsk, N., 2008. Poising the poor: Electronic Waste in Ghana. University of Exeter, UK: Ghana Greenpeace Research Laboratories. p.4, http://www.greenpeace.org.
(37) Asante, A.K., et.al, 2011. Human exposure to PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs in Ghana: Temporal variation sources of exposure and estimation of daily intakes by infants. Environment International, 37 (5), pp.21-8.
(38) European Union Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environment Law (IMPEL)., 2010. Report on the IMPEL TFS Workshop “Clamping down on illegal waste shipments to Africa”. Accra, Ghana 24-26 November 2009. p.27, http://www.wscep.org.
(39) M. Shluep, 2009. E-waste management in Africa- Rising up the Political Agenda. Recycling International, April 2011. p.5. http://www.ewasteguide.info.
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A local NGO, mothers2mothers (m2m), has turned to information technology (IT) for assistance to avoid the HIV/AIDS from mother to child transmission.
m2m co-founder and chief executive officer, Gene Falk, points out that the IT support from a computer giant, HP, will enable the organisation to serve women in a much more effective way through improved knowledge and insight.
With the help of HP, the organisation will now be able to utilise technological database and mobile services to digitise patient records and effectively communicate within their network in helping mothers with counselling.
To read the article titled, “African NGO taps IT to help prevent HIV transmission,” click here.Source:IDG News
SchoolNet South Africa is running a youth ICT employability programme to equip unemployed graduates with the skills required to secure work as ICT technicians. As part of the programme, we would like to offer each of the 20 participants an opportunity to spend a week being exposed to the workplace, ideally in an ICT department of a big company or an ICT company itself. If you are able to assist us, please contact me via email@example.com or 071 826 3812.
Thank you for your assistance, it will mean so much to our participants!