Millennium Development Goals

United Nations MDGs AfricanAgenda2010
Friday, 16 April, 2010 - 11:52

The Millennium Declaration gave birth to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), a framework of 21 quantifiable targets and 60 indicators was set up by a consensus of experts from the United Nations Secretariat, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the World Bank.

The MDGs are to be achieved by 2015.

Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Target 1A - Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day.

Indicator 1.1: Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day

Indicator 1.2: Poverty gap ratio

Indicator 1.3: Share of poorest quintile in national consumption

Target 1B - Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people.

Indicator 1.4: Growth rate of GDP per person employed

Indicator 1.5: Employment-to-population ratio

Indicator 1.6: Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per day

Indicator 1.7: Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment

Target 1C - Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.

Indicator 1.8: Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age

Indicator 1.9: Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption

Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education

Target 2 - Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.

Indicator 2.1: Net enrollment ratio in primary education

Indicator 2.2: Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last grade of primary

Indicator 2.3 Literacy rate of 15-24 year-olds, women and men

Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women

Target 3 - Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015.

Indicator 3.1: Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education

Indicator 3.2 Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector

Indicator 3.3 Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament

Goal 4: Reduce child mortality

Target 4 - Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate.

Indicator 4.1: Under-five mortality rate

Indicator 4.2: Infant mortality rate

Indicator 4.3: Proportion of 1 year-old children immunized against measles

Goal 5: Improve maternal health

Target 5A - Reduce by three-quarters the maternal mortality ratio.

Indicator 5.1: Maternal mortality ratio

Indicator 5.2: Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel

Target 5B - Achieve universal access to reproductive health.

Indicator 5.3: Contraceptive prevalence rate

Indicator 5.4: Adolescent birth rate

Indicator 5.5: Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visits)

Indicator 5.6: Unmet need for family planning

Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

Target 6A - Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS.

Indicator 6.1: HIV prevalence among population aged 15-24 years

Indicator 6.2: Condom use at last high-risk sex

Indicator 6.3: Proportion of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS

Indicator 6.4: Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10-14 years

Target 6B - Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it.

Indicator 6.5: Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to antiretroviral drugs

Target 6C - Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.

Indicator 6.6: Incidence and death rates associated with malaria

Indicator 6.7: Proportion of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets

Indicator 6.8: Proportion of children under 5 with fever who are treated with appropriate anti-malarial drugs

Indicator 6.9: Incidence, prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis

Indicator 6.10: Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course

Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability

Target 7A - Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources.

Target 7B - Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss.

Indicator 7.1: Proportion of land area covered by forest

Indicator 7.2: CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP)

Indicator 7.3: Consumption of ozone-depleting substances

Indicator 7.4: Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits

Indicator 7.5: Proportion of total water resources used

Indicator 7.6: Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected

Indicator 7.7: Proportion of species threatened with extinction

Target 7C - Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.

Indicator 7.8: Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source

Indicator 7.9: Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility

Target 7D - By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers.

Indicator 7.10: Proportion of urban population living in slums

Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development

Target 8A - Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. This includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction - both nationally and internationally.

Target 8B - Address the special needs of the least developed countries. This includes tariff- and quota- free access for the least developed countries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction.

Target 8C - Address the special needs of land-locked countries and small island developing states through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and 22nd General Assembly provisions.

Target 8D - Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term.

Official Development Assistance

Indicator 8.1: Net ODA, total and to the least developed countries LDCs, as percentage of OECD/Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donors’ gross national income

Indicator 8.2: Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation)

Indicator 8.3: Proportion of bilateral ODA of OECD/DAC donors that is untied

Indicator 8.4: ODA received in landlocked developing countries as a proportion of their GNIs

Indicator 8.5: ODA received in small island developing states as proportion of their GNIs

Market Access

Indicator 8.6: Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from developing countries and from LDCs, admitted free of duty Indicator 8.7: Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countries

Indicator 8.8: Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a percentage of their GDP

Indicator 8.9: Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity

Debt Sustainability

Indicator 8.10: Total number of countries that have reached their Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiatives (HIPC) decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative)

Indicator 8.11: Debt relief committed under HIPC and MDRI initiative

Indicator 8.12: Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services

Target 8E - In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries.

Indicator 8.13: Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis

Target 8F - In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications technologies.

Indicator 8.14: Telephone lines per 100 population

Indicator 8.15: Cellular subscribers per 100 population

Indicator 8.16: Internet users per 100 population

For more about the MDGs, click here

To read the Millennium Development Goals Report 2009, click here.

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